Fundamentals of Statistics contains material of various lectures and courses of H. Lohninger on statistics, data analysis and chemometrics......click here for more. 
Home Univariate Data Distributions Expectation  
See also: algebra of expectation, random variable  
ExpectationThe mathematical expectation is a concept which is often misunderstood and confused with the mean. In fact the expectation could be the mean, but must not necessarily be the same. The expectation is a more general concept which provides a formalism to estimate the expected value of a random variable (a function) for a population with a known probability distribution function. The expectation of a continuous random variable can be calculated as follows The corresponding equation for discrete random variables is n .... number of observations
If the probabilities of all n observations p() are equal, i.e. p() = 1/n, this equation can be reduced to There are several rules concerning
expectation values which can be applied to derive the expected values
of more complicated random variables.


Home Univariate Data Distributions Expectation 